Wednesday, April 4, 2018

0064: The Jigsaw's Up #1

The reason, I suspect, that there isn't a comprehensive database for licensed products featuring popular comic book characters is that one of the cardinal organizing principles would be the art credits and there is often no record of who drew what.

It's true that there's an enormous volume of individual pieces to track, but that's also true of comics themselves and there are and have long been checklists and price guides of every comic from a given publisher, big and small, either in print or online. These often include art and/or writing credits, but for some users that might not be necessary if their only interest is in a particular character or genre. With licensed products, however, there is no story, per se, although one might be implied. What you get is a character (or  several) in a pose or scenario either lifted from a previously released publication or newly drawn to meet the standards of whoever the publisher's Art Director is at the time. For licensed super-heroes, the thinking for decades was that they were most appropriate for products intended for a market of children. For that reason, fan favorite artists who appealed to those readers who bought and read the largest number of comics, most frequently and consistently, were passed over in favor of artists inclined to give the characters an even softer and friendlier look than they would ordinarily have. Who were these artists? Good question. When the art is reproduced from a print publication it's usually easy (if time consuming) to verify the artist. Original art and exclusive images, which should be more desirable, are ironically more difficult to tie to an artist. License holders don't want to field questions about artists they've never directly employed or even met, so they prefer the work not be signed. So, it becomes a detective game of educated guesses and shots in the dark.

Let's take the Incredible Hulk jigsaw puzzle, whose box lid is pictured above, as a case study. It is clearly a children's product, starting with the fact that it is a 100-piece puzzle [technically 108 pieces]. The same manufacturer, Rainbow Works, also makes 500- and 1000-piece boxed jigsaw puzzles of more conventional landscapes and flower arrangements. Secondly, the normally scowling Hulk merely has a furrowed brow and the kids in the school bus window, far from panicking about being in the grip of a giant green monster, seem happy to see him.











Next, check out the side panel above. There are two copyright dates, 1981 and 1988. The finished product should have the later date, but the earlier date invites two possible explanations. Either this same puzzle was released in 1981 and this is a reissue of the same puzzle in a new package; or the artwork was taken from some other product or book originally published in 1981 and used again to make this jigsaw puzzle in 1988. So we're probably looking for someone Marvel would ask to draw a no frills Hulk picture circa 1981.

For Marvel, 1981 was a freaky little year. In the two years since cancelling roughly two dozen titles at the beginning of 1979 around the time of a price increase (to 40¢), Marvel had ended its relationship with Simon & Schuster, whose Fireside imprint published paperbacks reprinting Marvel comics stories (mostly Silver Age) from 1974 to 1979. However, they also published an exercise book, a cook book, "How To Draw Comics The Marvel Way" and several books of puzzles, all of which licensed images of Marvel characters. The puzzle books must have proved popular enough to justify the new series FUN AND GAMES #1 (09/79)- #13 (09/80), a newsstand comic book filled with similar puzzles using art often credited to Owen McCarron. McCarron was a Canadian cartoonist who was a fixture of Canadian newspapers for decades, but also did sporadic work for Marvel in addition to the FUN AND GAMES series. In light of his familiarity with the characters and the disappearance of outlets for his art like the Fireside trades and the subsequent comic book series, it makes sense that Marvel would turn to McCarron for licensing images in 1981. There are other candidates, of course, many of whom will remain forever anonymous, but this art is very much in his style. His take on the Hulk follows the look that John Romita, Sr. (who was Marvel's Art Director during most if not all of McCarron's projects with Marvel) approved for licensed products in the late 70's.

If we're willing to assume that McCarron is the artist, that still doesn't explain why the image was copyrighted for 1981. It's worth pointing out that the date doesn't refer to the design of the logo, which is itself a form of intellectual property. The "Incredible Hulk" comic book series used a 'stone block' motif for its logo from the time it took over the "Tales To Astonish" title as of #102 (04/68) through #128 (06/70), except for #109 (11/68). #109 had a stylized logo the was later tidied up and used as the regular logo for #129 (07/70)- #313 (11/85) and is the one that appears on the jigsaw puzzle box. I should note that it was only used on the monthly series. The Annuals used the 'stone block' style logo from 1969 to 1994 (with three exceptions I'll explain in a moment) for some reason. It was also used for the single Giant-Size Hulk (1975) and Marvel Treasury Editions #5 (1975) and #17 (1978). His remaining three solo volumes of MTE (#20, 24 and 26) used a "Rampaging Hulk" logo similar to the one often used on the B&W magazine. Even the reprint series "Marvel Super-Heroes" used the 'stone block' logo from #56 (03/76) until its cancellation with #105 (01/82), The only Annuals not using the 'stone block' style were the first (1968), with its unique (and notorious) logo integrated into the art by Jim Steranko, and #14 (1985)- #15 (1986), which had the same logo used on the monthly series for #314 (12/85)- 339 (01/88). Oddly, shortly before the jigsaw puzzle was marketed the monthly series reverted to the 'stone block' logo and kept it for the rest of the run of that incarnation of the title, except for a handful of issues that temporarily adopted the 1962 logo for nostalgia purposes. There's no reason to think that the logo, if it also accompanied the art in 1981, would have been copyrighted for that year specifically after being in continuous use for a decade. I'm also curious as to why they might use that particular logo on the jigsaw puzzle box in 1988 when the comics had not only discontinued its use but had used two other logos since then. It's not actually part of the art used to make the puzzle; it only appears on the packaging.

The next step to finding a possible source for the art was to research other products from the manufacturer. Rainbow Works gave the puzzle a product number: 75913-2. One thing I found about their products is that the '2' that comes after the dash isn't an ordinary UPC suffix. Some of their products have two-digit numbers after the five-digit index. The other thing I found is that products of theirs in the 75900 series of indices have copyrights ranging from 1968 to 1992 but that the numerical order of the indices is unrelated to the chronological order of the products. Also, several indices have more than one suffix, indicating different products. But most importantly, most of those products were framed tray jigsaw puzzles. Those are sold assembled with the outermost edge of the image uncut and glued against a heavy cardboard backing and the interior pieces loose. It wouldn't surprise me if the Hulk image had been used for a framed tray puzzle in 1981 and revived in 1988 for a boxed puzzle to sell it through different channels. I'd rather know for certain. The image may have been made for a Whitman/Western coloring book or some other child-targeted product.

If any readers own or know of an earlier use of the above image, please leave a note to that effect in the comments. Even a later use would be interesting, and possibly provide a lead to earlier licensees.

Thursday, February 1, 2018

0063: Pay As You Glow

The comic scan on the right is from a 1974 promotional comic printed by Custom Comics, Inc. There is no indicia per se, just that date, name and the address "10 W.19th St., N.Y.C." on the bottom of the second page. There's also no cover in the sense of a slick paper outer cover carrying trade dress such as a publisher name, price, date, distributor's mark,  etc. The yellow strip at the bottom does indicate the region where it was intended to be given away; the same cover (and I have to guess the same interior) was used for Pennsylvania and Southern California.

"Massachusetts Electric" is self explanatory. For those of you outside New England, "Granite State" refers to New Hampshire and Narragansett is in Rhode Island. The same title was used for promotional comics with different covers, albeit with the same nuclear family. [That both is and isn't a pun, so I'm now wondering if it would have made a better title for the post.] I've found some of those other covers online stamped for other regions.

The whole thing is 16 pages, a roughly even mixture of schematics and stock commercial art illustrations mixed with panels forming a story that I'm willing to bet were drawn by Kurt Schaffenberger. In 1974, Schaffenberger became a focus of attention when DC combined three titles (SUPERMAN'S PAL JIMMY OLSEN, SUPERMAN'S GIRLFRIEND LOIS LANE and SUPERGIRL) starring characters he had drawn, at one time or another, into a single extra-length title SUPERMAN FAMILY. It prompted the obvious question, "If you have three series you were going to cancel for flagging sales, what makes you think that the fans of each (let alone more fans) will pay more to get any one of them?" Well, somebody did because SUPERMAN FAMILY lasted another eight years. After the Three Mile Island incident in the late 1970's, these pro-nuclear energy tracts (which had been common since the 1950's) gave way to pro-computer (and pocket calculator) tracts sponsored by Radio Shack. By then, it became more common for the creative teams to be credited, which is helpful when dealing with artists who aren't quite as instantly recognizable as Schaffenberger.

Thursday, December 21, 2017

0062: Peace On Earth-Pig

I've got one more Christmas item this year and this one you may have seen before. Dave Sim and his background artist Gerhard mass-produced cards as a thank you to retailers who carried Cerebus, but signed them individually. My guess is they threw in a copy when giving gifts to friends and family, but for those of us getting the comics to the readers the card was the gift. It was just a small acknowledgement that we weren't forgotten in the machinery. It shows up on internet searches (try Google Image) and the blog A Moment Of Cerebus claims the art and lettering appear in CEREBUS #201 (12/95) (I'll take their word for it; my copy is in storage). I've reproduced mine here with the signatures:





This month is the 40th anniversary of Cerebus and it would behoove (or besnout) you to check out the first to volumes of the trade paperbacks. I haven't seen the recently remastered editions but they've been described as having crisper images, which would be an asset in the second volume ("High Society") where the art really stepped up. The first volume ("Cerebus" or "Swords of Cerebus") may look cruder by comparison, but it's still brilliant. It's also essential for anyone who's a fan of Barry Smith's Conan.

Enjoy the holidays and read some comics.

Monday, December 18, 2017

0061: Merry Scratchmas

I wasn't planning on new posts until after New Year's, but I've come across some Christmas themed cards from my days in comics retail many years ago, and while they're all nice little bits of art you wouldn't ordinarily come across unless you specifically did an image search on the internet, there was one that was extremely unlikely to have been seen outside of a small number of people.

When I managed a comic book store, some of my regular customers were professional artists. That wasn't too surprising, since we were in a suburb (or exurb) west of Boston and south of Cambridge in Massachusetts. Before the physical world abdicated to the internet, book publishers liked being where the colleges were and illustrators liked being where the publishers were. Chatting with your editor about tweaking a recently submitted work to their satisfaction is a lot easier to do over the phone if you're a prose writer, not so much if you're a graphic artist. Also, before the internet that's where all the killer used bookstores were located and there were dozens and dozens of them back then. Cheap reference material!

Anyway, one of my regulars was Doug Smith, an artist who specialized in scratchboard, a technique that could almost be described as two-dimensional sculpture. The lines are scratched into a surface with varying widths and depths to produce a range of textures that would be difficult to produce with a pencil. In the hands of an amateur, the results would look like a child's carved potato stamp. In the hands of a professional-- well, just see for yourself:


Doug printed his own Christmas cards, making a new one each year. If the style looks at all familiar to fantasy fans, it should. Doug did the covers for numerous Gregory Maguire novels. Many of them, such as the original "Wicked", were die-cuts, meaning that he drew the ornate cover with the title and space to accommodate necessary trade elements plus a hole revealing a portion of a full page illustration beneath the cover. He also did spot illustrations. When "Wicked" was adapted into a stage musical, new printings of the book carried a new cover with the far more minimal art from the theatrical posters. Doug's art wasn't forgotten by fans of the books, though. Among other things, his artwork secured him a brief entry in the Oz Wiki.
Below is the interior of the card:

Occasionally Doug brought by original art to the store, either his own going to or from a print shop or pages of comic art he had acquired. I remember him showing me Kirby pages and some of Hampton's "Silverheels", which was more of a thrill than I thought it would be. I had only seen it serialized by Pacific Comics. The original watercolors were really beautiful.

If you'd like to see a wider range of Doug Smith's own beautiful artwork, below is a link to:
his own page on Behance .

Wednesday, September 27, 2017

0060: Knights and Days

This December will be the 40th anniversary of Cerebus The Aardvark, which must be the longest running self-published comic in history, at 300 issues. When I started rereading the series lately I found something not directly related to Cerebus that I had completely forgotten about.

The entire series is now available as 16 trades (except for five issues collected as CEREBUS #0 in 1993), but the early issues were reproduced several times as the print runs of issues in the 80's increased and new readers seeking out the scarcer early issues saw their prices rise. From 1981 to 1984 the first 25 issues were reprinted as a series of thin trades under the name SWORDS OF CEREBUS. Each volume would present the stories from four consecutive issues with introductory essays and a new story or feature of some kind. Those extra short stories were collected as CEREBUS WORLD TOUR BOOK in 1995. The indicia of some issues of CEREBUS published while SWORDS... was in production stated that the series was published fifteen times a year, meaning the twelve monthly issues of the original series plus three issues of SWORDS... It didn't work out that way in the long run. After the first three volumes came out in 1981, only one volume per year came out for the next three years, unless you count the second or third printings of the earlier volumes which occupied those spots on the release schedule. From 1982 to 1984, Aardvark-Vanaheim had added comics by other creators to their roster, briefly publishing under the imprint Renegade until the early 1985, after which Renegade became a separate publisher.

After a year of publishing only CEREBUS, creator Dave Sim took up two new ventures: a new imprint, Aardvark One International, to publish a new series PUMA BLUES and a trade paperback collection of the story arc HIGH SOCIETY, from CEREBUS #26-50. His decision to sell the trade by mail order only was initially ignored by comics distributors. But when it was followed in January 1987 by a trade of the first 25 issues (again) and in June by a trade of the third arc, it became obvious that the trades were selling and not just an indulgent vanity project. The distributors wanted a cut and in 1988, Diamond Comic Distributors decided to take a hostage. They threatened to stop distributing PUMA BLUES, cutting its sales by roughly a third, unless Sim used their services to distribute his trades. To keep their audience, PUMA BLUES moved to Mirage, the publisher of TEENAGE MUTANT NINJA TURTLES. To fill their spot on the schedule and mollify Diamond, Sim created CEREBUS BI-WEEKLY, which would reprint the entire series from the beginning, including the editorial content and cover art in color and anything else ordinarily forgotten when the stories were compiled in trades.

By making the reprint series bi-weekly, distributors would be able to offer twice as much Cerebus back catalogue material as new material every month, not just twice a year. It would take about a year to recreate each trade, by which point the reprint series would possibly reach the point where the main series reached its peak sales and print run and the demand for reprints would dwindle. Realistically, it would never catch up to the main series.

The first issue of ...BI-WEEKLY (December 2, 1988) reprints the first issue of CEREBUS in its entirety, right down to the opening editorial and indicia (with the exception of the original address for the publication offices, which had since changed, to avoid confusion). Even this ad, which appeared on the inside back cover of the original, was reproduced with an added annotation above it.

I checked, and sure enough the entire portfolio could be seen on Pinterest and Flickr, which wouldn't even exist until after CEREBUS ended and a couple of decades after Sim began distributing his trades on the direct market. I don't know how many "personal copies" Gene Day held onto but now the whole world has copies, in a sense. As detailed as the art is, it isn't nearly as good as Day would become in just a few years. Despite being shut down by Lucasfilms, Day went on to ink the authorized Marvel STAR WARS series less than a year later. But he was probably first noticed for inking Mike Zeck on MASTER OF KUNG FU and, like Steranko inking Kirby on S.H.I.E.L.D., eventually taking over the pencils as well as his talent developed exponentially. Shortly before he died in the fall of 1982, he began pencilling the STAR WARS series but only completed two issues (#68-69) with Tom Palmer. One of the first new titles Renegade published after splitting from Aardvark-Vanaheim in 1985 was GENE DAY'S BLACK ZEPPELIN, compiled from small press and unpublished stories with the cooperation of his brothers Dan and David. Although some of the stories involving other creators have been included in their own trades, the exclusively Day material isn't and is overdue for reexamination since it spans his earlier, cruder underground origins as well as his better known professional fantasy work. It's just a few more years until his 70th birthday, and it would make a fitting commemoration to finally curate his work.

Monday, September 25, 2017

0059: ...Or, as they say, "It nearly killed him!"

NOTE: Despite having a large collection of comics and related material, comparatively little of it contains lots of gore. Because of that, I never developed a protocol for when a trigger warning would be appropriate. The current post doesn't have any bloody images, but it does have a song title that's not for the easily queasy or the professionally outraged. And if you don't recognize the punchline referenced in the post title, then maybe you should just enjoy the pictures. Or maybe you should read on, you might learn something.


Most science fiction fans probably know Swiss surrealist painter/sculptor H.R. Giger as the designer of the Aliens made famous in Ridley Scott's films. They are one of three works that, perhaps unfairly, overwhelm the visibility of his enormous body of original art, books and lithographs. The others are the record jacket art for Emerson, Lake and Palmer's "Brain Salad Surgery" and a poster of a painting entitled "Penis Landscape" that was included in the Dead Kennedys' LP "Frankenchrist". That poster resulted in an infamous trial in which a district attorney running for office tried to prosecute lead singer and label head Jello Biafra for distributing "harmful matter" to minors. The charges and the incoherent arguments to support them were ridiculous, but the expectation was that all parties would plead guilty to avoid the cost of the trial and to bargain for lesser penalties, while the prosecution enjoyed a taxpayer funded election ad. They had not reckoned on Baifra's capacity for spite and righteous indignation. At the cost of his marriage, the acrimonious dissolution of his band and over $50,000 in legal fees, he fought the charges. A deadlocked jury sent the decision back to the judge, who threw the case out as frivolous.

The use of Giger's art was unusual at the label, Alternative Tentacles, whose bands usually found artists for record packaging closer to home, occasionally from their own members. Montage artist Winston Smith provided art for many of the Dead Kennedys' projects and continued working with Biafra on his solo projects, beginning with the spoken word albums "No More Coccoons" and "High Priest Of Harmful Matter".

Eventually, other bands recording on Alternative Tentacles took advantage of the fact that one of its most famous vocalists/lyricists was without a band. Musicians recording elsewhere formed splinter groups as an excuse to record with him. In the span of a few years he had released albums with NoMeansNo, D.O.A., Mojo Nixon, Lard and others. In 1991 he released an album called "Tumor Circus" that became the name of the group assembled to record it. That was primarily Biafra, Charlie Tolnay (of the band Lubricated Goat) and three members of Steel Pole Bathtub.

The album was accompanied by a 7" single of two non-album songs, "Take Me Back Or I'll Drown Our Dog" and "Swine Flu" backed with the album track "Fireball". By the end of the year, one more previously unreleased recording came out with an unusual bit of a bonus.

































Horror writer Clive Barker allowed the art seen in the first scan above to be used for the sleeve. Instead of a standard square paper envelope into which a single would ordinarily be dropped, the sleeve was printed as a single 7.25" X 14.50" piece of paper folded in half and held in a clear plastic sleeve. That was what enabled me to flatten the sleeve out and make the scan used here. The art originally appeared in the book "Clive Barker: Illustrator", published earlier that year (1991) by Eclipse Books in both hardcover and paperback. The second scan shows the A-side label with the song title, "Meathook Up My Rectum" and explains why the B-side is so difficult to play. As it turns out, Barker provided an original sketch recreated as an etching where the B-side would be. I apologize in advance if there are devices on which this doesn't appear.

This came out while Barker's stories were being adapted for the Eclipse Comics anthology "Tapping The Vein" and Marvel's Epic line was publishing both a "Hellraiser" and "Nightbreed" series. He had also written the introduction to the trade paperback of Sandman's "A Doll's House". In another two years the Marvel Razorline imprint would briefly publish stories written by James Robinson, Elaine Lee and Fred Burke from concepts provided by Barker. So, as unlikely as it sounds, "Meathook Up My Rectum" became one of the most mainstream releases on the label in the early 90's.

Saturday, September 23, 2017

0058: "Early Days of Triiumph"

[Silver Age Marvel History Part 7 -- see ADMIN03 ]

In the first half of the 1970's, as I entered elementary school and began getting my own comic books, reprints were ubiquitous. Marvel and DC were beginning to dominate the racks. They each published ongoing reprint titles (DC only briefly, mostly in 1973), printed double- and triple-length comics mixing new lead stories with reprint back-up stories, published lines of tabloid-sized treasury editions and on rare occasions licensed select old stories to book publishers. That was the only way you could find comic book stories in a large bookstore; if anyone other than the comic book publishers printed them.

As a teenager I learned more about the histories of the comics published by the two remaining majors, long before I knew the histories of the companies themselves. I found that by organizing a publisher's titles by their cover dates I could get a rough idea of when the  cover prices changed. I also noticed that the trade dress designs weren't just random decorations but that they would change simultaneously across the line and enable me to find other stories by my favorite creators or with my favorite supporting characters. I also learned that the diversity of formats I had grown up with hadn't always been the norm. Just a few years before I started reading, both Marvel and DC had exactly two price points. The standard comics for each had 32 interior pages for 12¢ (from roughly late 1961 to early 1969, then 15¢ until 1971). For DC, the larger price point was 80 interior pages (with a rare exception) for 25¢ and consisted almost entirely of reprints. For Marvel, they began at 72 pages for 25¢ and halfway through the decade dialed back to 64 pages for the same price. Despite the disparity in production costs, they did this with comics that were entirely new, entirely reprints or some combination of both. There was no public rationale for this, no manifesto explaining their reasons; you either bought what was on the rack or you didn't and two months later it wouldn't matter because any unsold comics would be destroyed. The publishers hoped that whatever they offered you was something that you wanted more than you wanted the quarter. However, it could be that Marvel was selling a brand identity as much as Spider-man stories. They had witnessed DC launching the 80pg/25¢ format when standard comics were still 10¢ in 1960 and keeping it even after the standard went up to 12¢. When they introduced their own line of exactly two annuals in 1962, one was all new and the other all reprint. Both were the same length and price: 72pg/25¢.
When the standard price at both companies rose to 15¢ in early 1969, they each chose again to keep the price of their longer format at 25¢ but this time DC was forced to reduce their page count to 64 pages in order to do that. A few had short stories or framing sequences of new material, but they were still primarily reprints. Marvel by that time had both a small line (fewer than ten) of summer annuals with new lead stories and features and reprint back-up stories, but also had several bi-monthly all-reprint series the same length and price. The summer annuals as of that year were all-reprint and wouldn't have new material again until 1976. [The quarterly Giant-Size comics published in lieu of annuals in 1974-1975 are a whole other breed; if I live long enough to cover all the Silver Age reprints, I would love to pick apart the Giants.]

In 1971, with another price increase looming, the 25¢ price point shrank to 48 pages at both companies, but at DC they decided to make that the standard format (for a year, anyway). Their last four Giants were 64pg/35¢, overlapping with the introduction of their 96pg/50¢ "Super Spectacular" format and the introduction of B&W magazines, digests and tabloids at both companies. For me, that diversification of formats is the demarcation between the Silver and Bronze Ages.

The cover above is my personal copy of MARVEL COLLECTORS' ITEM CLASSICS #3 (06/66). It represented a shift in the role of special format reprints. The first in 1962, STRANGE TALES ANNUAL #1, reprinted all suspense stories. The second in 1963 was STRANGE TALES ANNUAL#2 with a new Human Torch story followed by more suspense reprints, but that same year the first Fantastic Four Annual  included a reprint of the first 13 pages of FF#1, the start of Marvel's Silver Age super-hero roster. By the summer of 1964, suspense stories had just been phased out of the standard Marvel comics, so the reprint special for that year, MARVEL TALES ANNUAL #1, reprinted the super-hero origin stories that followed FF#1. It had the first six pages of the first Hulk story, the first Thor and Spider-man stories and both the first appearances of Ant-Man and Iron Man and excerpts of their upgrades (Giant-Man identity and stream-lined armor, respectively). It also had the first six pages of the first Sgt. Fury story, acting as an origin for his title. While Sgt. Fury wasn't exactly a super-hero title, Nick had already made his present day appearance in FF#21 and was fixed in the new burgeoning continuity. There were also no other war titles at the time; the last one Marvel published had been BATTLE #70, cancelled in 1960 to make way for Archie knock-off MY GIRL PEARL. Speaking of which, the four remaining teen humor titles had been represented by MILLIE THE MODEL and PATSY & HEDY Annuals, but there was no Annual or other reprint title for the three remaining westerns, the only other surviving genre in 1964. There was definitely a concerted attempt to convey the feel of the super-hero books onto the westerns, beyond just having Jack Kirby covers. Letters pages were added to all titles in late 1964. RAWHIDE KID #45 (04/65) presented a newly retold "Origin" story. KID COLT OUTLAW #121 (03/65) featured a crossover team-up with Rawhide Kid and #125 (11/65) had Two-Gun Kid. But in late 1965 the short five page back-up stories were replaced with reprints. By that time there were eleven monthly titles and five bi-monthly titles to put out, not counting the three new reprint series and various specials. Western back-ups weren't the best use of an artist. Then, out of the blue, beginning in the summer of 1966, three consecutive issues of KID COLT OUTLAW #130 (09/66)-132 (01/67) became 64pg/25¢ reprint specials, although only the first used the trade dress common for the annuals at the time. It was one of several "testing the waters" events that both Marvel and DC toyed with in the latter half of the '60's.

Part of the reason for tentative experiments with format surely had to be the zeitgeist of the decade. Asking why and pushing boundaries were the order of the day in business, academics and art; comics had always been an 'adapt or die' industry, jumping on fads and exploiting trends. If you as a publisher didn't look for something new and different in 1966, you could bet your readers would. Another part of the explanation was probably the mid-season television debut of the "Batman" series in January. [For younger readers: before cable and multi-platform viewing there were three(!) American commercial broadcast networks and most of their new shows began in September each year. A typical season was 35 episodes, but if the first dozen of those perform badly in the ratings (and every year a few shows do) then it will be prematurely cancelled and replaced in January with a series reserved for that purpose.] "Batman" was a replacement series and ran two episodes a week for 17 consecutive weeks. The second season was 30 consecutive weeks- 94 episodes in a year and a half. It was a pop culture phenomenon and DC, who were already publishing two 80pg Giants of BATMAN every year responded only by squeezing a third into their schedule in 1966. Most of their capitalization on the success of the TV show took the form of licensed products and increased sales of their existing titles. Bizarrely, they never increased the frequency of the main title. To put things in perspective:

DC Comics began 1955, their implementation of the Comics Code, by publishing:
  • Ten monthly comics titles
  • Twelve titles that came out eight times a year (the equivalent of eight monthly titles)
  • Twenty-two bimonthly comics titles (the equivalent of eleven monthly titles)
44 titles, averaging 29 shipments a month (not counting one Rudolph comic at Christmas),

DC Comics began 1966, when the Batman TV show debuted, by publishing:
  • Six monthly comics titles
  • Eighteen titles that came out eight times a year (the equivalent of twelve monthly titles)
  • Twenty-four bi-monthly comics titles (the equivalent of twelve monthly titles)
  • Twelve monthly 80pg Giants (the equivalent of 2.5 monthly titles)
Not counting the giants, that's 48 titles averaging 30 shipments a month. That's not much growth for a pop culture boom and Marvel had nearly doubled their own output since 1958, on top of having increased sales per title. The really bizarre part of this is that the remaining monthly titles were BLACKHAWK, which had been acquired from Quality after 1955, and five pre-Code anthologies, including the three oldest titles they published: ADVENTURE, DETECTIVE and ACTION. Of their other pre-Code titles, all the super-hero titles at that time were published eight times a year. Of the titles introduced since the Code was implemented, only JUSTICE LEAGUE OF AMERICA, GREEN LANTERN, LOIS LANE and FALLING IN LOVE were eight-per-year titles. Yet, neither DC or Marvel had introduced an anthology title since Marvel's AMAZING ADVENTURES in 1961, excepting reprints [DC acquired the last two titles from the defunct publisher Prize Publications in 1963, both romance anthologies]. LINDA CARTER, STUDENT NURSE and HULK were cancelled, but all Marvel's other new titles since 1961 started as bi-monthly and became monthly before 1966. Why DC had such deference for their anthology titles is curious enough, but denying monthly status to SUPERMAN, BATMAN, JLA, FLASH, etc. is mystifying. The anthology titles by that time weren't still true anthologies anyway. In general, they had a lead story and a back-up. ADVENTURE had been running reprints as back-ups to their Legion of Super-Heroes stories since 1963 and during 1966 would eliminate those to publish issue length LSH stories until 1969. The attention brought by a television series would be the perfection situation for releasing material more frequently, but none of those titles would go monthly until the 1970's, and even then only some of them.

Meanwhile, Marvel was not only producing their super-hero stories more frequently they were repackaging the earliest stories for new readers who came in late. When the first MARVEL TALES came out there was also an all-new AMAZING SPIDER-MAN ANNUAL #1 and a second FF Annual reprinting the first appearance of Dr. Doom from FF#5. When the second MARVEL TALES came out in 1965, the third FF Annual (reprinting FF#6 and 11) and second Spider-man Annual (reprinting AS#5, the first story from AS#1 and the second story from AS#2) were joined by the first annuals for JOURNEY INTO MYSTERY (reprinting Thor stories from #'s 85, 93, 95 and 97) and SGT. FURY AND HIS HOWLING COMMANDOS (reprinting #'s 4 and 5, plus a two page feature from #1). The MARVEL TALES itself reprinted the first issues of X-MEN and AVENGERS and the origin story of Doctor Strange from STRANGE TALES #115. There wasn't much else that would fit the 'Secret Origins' format they had carved out for the book. Dr. Droom (who preceded the FF in AMAZING ADVENTURES) had a first appearance they could have used, but not an origin story. More to the point, he never made it to 1962. The Human Torch feature in STRANGE TALES wouldn't have had an origin separate from the one for the rest of the FF already reprinted in their annual. Chronologically, the next new feature would be Daredevil, whose first story wouldn't physically fit in the remaining pages. After that, the origin story of Captain America had just appeared months earlier in TALES OF SUSPENSE #63 (03/65), and the first S.H.I.E.L.D. story more recently in STRANGE TALES #135 (08/65). The Submariner feature had started the same week in TALES TO ASTONISH #70 (08/65), but his origin had been in the first FF Annual and it seemed excessive to reprint a 37-page story just for the flashback sequence. Instead, the remaining pages were filled with the final ten pages of HULK #3, a random suspense story from AMAZING ADULT FANTASY #8 and four in-house ads. It became clear that the titles and features they had were too successful for Marvel to need enough new ones to fill a 72 page special with origins and first appearances every year. Finally, a nice problem to have.

With the summer past, Marvel planned to forego annual specials of reprints and instead publish a regular quarterly special of early stories called MARVEL COLLECTORS' ITEM CLASSICS. As their first year-round series of specials it would be 64 pages instead of 72. It focused on the best sellers, with the first issue reprinting FF#2 and AS#3 with enough room left over to reprint the second Ant-man story, the first "Tales of Asgard" back-up and a house ad. The second issue reprinted the next installments of FF, Spider-man and Ant-man, but replaced the "Tales Of Asgard" with paid ads and changed the indicia to read "published bi-monthly". While it was on the stands, the Batman TV show debuted, the impact was almost immediate and the third issue (see above scans) was different. When combined with the revised MARVEL TALES, which would ship the following month, they would reproduce all the super-hero features Marvel introduced from the Fantastic Four to before X-Men/Avengers, as close to chronologically as space permitted. They did this by splitting the two best sellers between them: FF stayed with MCIC, Spider-man went with the new MT. They then shuffled the Ditko and Kirby art. Since MCIC had FF, MT got the Human Torch and Thor. Since MT had Spider-man, MCIC got Doctor Strange and Iron Man (which had variable artists, including both Kirby and Ditko). This left enough wiggle room in MCIC for short pieces (like the Watcher back-ups from TALES OF SUSPENSE) and the question of what to do with the short-lived Hulk series answered itself. The six issues, which were originally published with chapter breaks in some issues and short stories in others, would be serialized. The first two MARVEL TALES Annuals had already used such segments, MCIC would just complete them.

As with the first two issues, the third issue would employ a composite cover using the covers of the comics where the reprinted stories originally appeared. MARVEL TALES would also adopt this method starting with its third issue as well as using the inside front cover to describe contents and production credits. The rest of the contents are:

  • Reprint FANTASTIC FOUR #4(05/62) "The Coming Of... Sub-mariner!", 23pp
  • Reprint TALES OF SUSPENSE #40 (04/63) [Iron Man] "~ Versus Gargantus!", 13pp
  • Reprint STRANGE TALES #110 (07/62) [Dr. Strange] "~ Master Of Black Magic!", 5pp
  • Reprint TALES OF SUSPENSE #49 (01/64) [Watcher] "The Saga Of The Sneepers!", 5pp
  • Reprint INCREDIBLE HULK #3 (09/62) "Banished To Outer Space", 11pp
The remaining seven pages and both sides of the back cover were all paid ads.

Previously on "Sieve Eye Care"...